Friday, December 17, 2010

More Information Revealed about Nebra Sky Disk

German Museum of Prehistory Confirms Possible
Connection between Moses, Pleiades, Nebra Sky Disk

Is there more to Yahuwah's calendar of scripture than has yet been revealed? A Work in Progress

Possible Connection Found Between Moses Instructions In Exodus 12, the Pleiades, and Recent Archaeological Find

In March of 2010, I "accidentally" stumbled onto what appears to be a connection between Yah's calendar of scripture, the star cluster known as the Pleiades and the Nebra Sky Disk. The Nebra Sky Disk was found near Nebra, Germany in 1999 and may be the oldest archaeological find in history. The artifact has been tested for authenticity, and is estimated to be about 3600 years old. This dates the relic to prior to the time of Moses and the Israelites in Egypt. The Pleiades is mentioned directly three times in scripture, in the book of Job and Amos. (Job 9:9 and 38:31, and Amos 5:8) The difficulty of connecting the Nebra Sky Disk with the Biblical Calendar, is that the disk was found in Germany, and has been authenticated to have been made in and near the area it was found. The odd thing is that the art work on the disk appears to be similar to Mesopotamia art, which would have come from somewhere in the general area where Moses was given the instructions for the biblical calendar.

In March 2010, I wrote a paper describing what I had found. You can find the first article here:

During my exploration of this new idea, I located and corresponded with Rahlf Hansen, one of the primary astronomers working on the Nebra Sky Disk project. He is with the Planetarium of Hamburg, in Hamburg, Germany. Rahlf provided a short thesis of his conclusions about the Nebra Sky Disk, and the contents of that paper can be read here:

Eventually, some astronomical questions about the Pleiades surfaced. The astronomical odds of the Pleiades coinciding with the biblical calendar seemed rather remarkable. After verifying some of the facts involved, I put these ideas in a paper about the distances and astronomical facts involved. That paper can be found here:

Nebra Sky Disk

Nebra Connections to the Creator's Biblical Calendar?
As I continued the study of the Nebra Disk and it's possible relation to the Creator's Biblical Calendar, the artwork depicted on the disk began to make more sense when compared to the Biblical Calendar. Some rather interesting "coincidences" presented themselves. I formulated those thoughts and ideas in an email to the folks working on the project in Germany.

Here's the summation of my conclusions that I presented to Rahlf Hansen, Planetarium of Hamburg, and Ralf Bockmann, State Museum of Prehistory, Halle/Saale, Germany:

I'd like to suggest that the large round object on the disk, the one most are calling the sun, may in fact be the moon. Looking at the moon and the Pleiades this month (October 2010) has firmed up this conviction. Here's my reasoning. In the published material, it is indicated that some kind of mixture, which included eggs, was applied to the disk, which made it appear dark and/or purplish, as if it were nighttime. I think this is the first clue.

The other indicators on the disk that suggest it is meant to be viewed at night, are the crescent in conjunction with the Pleiades, which would only be seen after sunset, or theoretically, dark. The second indicator are the three planets, mars, mercury, venues, also suggesting nighttime as one would not be able to see them unless it was dark. The third indicator is what you folks have labeled the "sun boat," at the bottom of the disk. My understanding is that this idea existed in cultures that thought that the sun went "in" at night, and came out again in the morning. Again, this suggests that it would be nighttime when the "sun boat" went in. And if the sun boat is portrayed, why would the sun need to also be portrayed as a full round object?

Now, from another perspective, let's look at the biblical lunisolar calendar. I checked the data for the past 10 years and the next 10 years and the crescent in conjunction or very near the Pleiades in the spring appears to point to the first biblical month of the year, which is usually April-May. There are those that begin the biblical year in March-April but my belief is that this is too early, particularly if the sun has not passed the equinoctial line. The first biblical month can begin in March-April, but as I believe, only when the sun has passed the turning point from winter to spring and the new moon occurs after that.

Note: In looking at the data for the period mentioned above, it also appears that the Pleiades does in fact indicate when a 13th month needs to be inserted, which means that it automatically signals the Metonic cycle to adjust the lunar to the solar year.
So far, from what I can tell in researching the data, the Pleiades in conjunction, or very near the moon, signals the same thing as if to begin the biblical year with the first new moon after the vernal equinox; not before, and not nearest; but after. The data on the Pleiades and the moon seem to confirm that.

Here's the point that really sells me on the idea of the large object on the Nebra disk being the moon. It is the relationship of the full moon and the Pleiades after the turn from summer to fall, after the autumnal equinox. This point is 6 months from the time that the Pleiades and the crescent appear in the spring. It is also the 7th biblical month, if the 1st month was started at the right time. I see this appearance of the full moon with the Pleiades as both a sign that the 1st biblical month was begun correctly, and also a confirmation of when the first biblical month will begin in the following spring.

Also, I found some information regarding German history and the moon festivals. Here's a clip of text; "The old non-agricultural Germans observed the new moon and the full moon as religious festivals (Tacitus Germania II). This sounds to me like it might have some connection to the Nebra Sky disk art, and possibly support the idea that the full round object on the disk is the moon and not the sun.

Thank you for your willingness to offer a review of my questions/conclusions. I look forward to hearing from you. 

State Museum of Prehistory in Germany Responds
Dear Paul,

sorry for letting you wait a while. I think you are generally right with what you have been writing to us, and it does not generally contradict with what Rahlf Hansen and others have been saying. In fact, also in our publications the round object on the disc is interpreted as the full moon, not the sun, at least for the early stages.

The position of the crescent moon on the disc in relation to the Pleiades corresponds with their disappearance in March as it could be seen in central Germany around 1600 BC. The appearance of the full moon with the Pleiades on the other hand could be seen in October. 

Both occurrences are indeed important for the agricultural year and have been used as markers of season basically long into the modern period in Europe, as Wolfhard Schlosser has been pointing out. Rahlf Hansen's reconstruction of the function of the first stage disc as a tool to memorize how to combine the lunar and solar calendars according to similar rules known from the ancient middle and near east has taken the whole interpretation of the original sky disc further. 

Only in later stages, the horizon arcs were added indicating the use of the disc to observe the sun, and even later the symbol interpreted as "sun barque" in analogy to finds from the Bronze Age of Northern Europe has been added, indicating a change in the underlying philosophy and probably also in function of the disc. Altogether, it must have been used for several hundreds of years, and it does indeed depict knowledge that can be traced back to the early Neolithic.

I do not find it surprising to learn from you about the similarities with the biblical calendar, because the knowledge of using the night sky to measure time is attested in the region where the bible originates at very early times already and is of a very basic nature.

There is one important point though: We have to take into consideration that the Nebra Sky Disc has been produced in Europe about 3600 years ago and was surely made to work in exactly that environment. That is why Mr. Schlosser has reconstructed the night sky of that time, which corresponds with the months that I have mentioned above. But, in general, your idea is the same.

So, I think your thoughts on the round object being the moon in the original composition of the sky disc, and its importance in relation to the Pleiades, are quite right and correspond with what Wolfhard Schlosser and Rahlf Hansen have published.

Thank you very much for writing to us,
best wishes,

Ralf Bockmann
State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt
State Museum of Prehistory
Richard-Wagner-Strasse 9
06114 Halle/Saale

Does the Pleiades play a role in the Creator's Biblical Calendar? There are certainly some coincidences that should not be overlooked. Since we do not have clear evidence from scripture pinpointing the Pleiades within the framework of the Biblical Calendar, no assumptions should be made. There is still a need to verify the connections to see if they prove out over a period of time, and more importantly, historically. One of the difficulties in pursuing this issue is that there seems to be a lack of historical references to the Pleiades as it may relate to the Biblical Calendar. The fact does remain though, that there are three direct references to the Pleiades in scripture, and we should not just casually ignore their presence. We just need to determine Yah's reason for their mention. 

Please email me with any questions or suggestions regarding this project;

Monday, December 6, 2010

9th Month Yah's Calendar Dec-Jan 2010-2011
(See notes under the calendar for explanation of some minor changes.)

 (Click on the calendar for larger image)

There were some minor changes made this month in constructing the calendar. Two items have been incorporated into construction of Yah's calendar; one is restoring the use of Jerusalem as the center of the beginnings of the calendar, and the other has to do with assuring that the full moon occurs on the 15th of the month, the 2nd Sabbath. There is historical evidence that the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Feast of Tabernacles occurred on the full moon, the 15th day of the month and sabbath. The question is then asked, why doesn't the full moon fall on the 15th day, the 2nd Sabbath all the time? If the month is started correctly, then they should. Months have 29 or 30 days alternately to compensate for the 29.53 day lunar cycle. So the 15th day should be more or less exactly in the middle of the month, on the 15th day. It should also serve to correctly place the 30th day every other month. Feel free to offer your comments or criticisms by clicking on the email link in the upper right of the page.

Monday, October 25, 2010

The Moon and The Pleiades Sail Together Through the Starry Night

The Moon and the Pleiades sailed across the night sky all night last night, Oct 24, from moon rise to moon set. The moon lead the procession only slightly and they were separated by only 2-3 degrees or so, as they traveled from the eastern horizon to the west horizon.

They can be seen in close company again tonight, October 25, as the Pleiades leads the way, but they will be separated by about 7 degrees.

After tonight, they distance themselves from each other and won't be seen together in very close company until spring of next year at the beginning month of the biblical year. 

Here's an image from the Stellarium Astronomy program programmed for the night of October 25 shown from Apalachicola, Florida. You can download Stellarium from

Download Stellarium at

Sunday, October 24, 2010

What About the Level Horned Crescent Theory?

What About the Beginning of Yahuwah’s Biblical Year

Is the Level Horned Crescent seen in the northern hemisphere the sign for the whole world for the beginning of the biblical year?

The Level Horned Crescent Theory

There is a theory circulating among some of those seeking the truth of Yahuwah, that the level horned crescent is the signal for the beginning of the biblical year in the spring. Is the level horned crescent the signal, and is it the truth? Let’s examine a little further.

What Causes the Level Horned Crescent?

In the northern hemisphere, in the latitudes that most of the populace resides, there is a point at which the days and nights become of approximate equal length. This point is generally around latitude 35 deg North or so. Above or below this latitude, the lengths of day and night will fluctuate by some minutes and hours, and eventually days.

Around this latitude of 35 deg North, March 16 is the day that the days and nights are about the same in length. This is the day that the first visible crescent (if it were seen on this day) would appear almost perfectly horizontal or level, with both horns pointing up. The equal day and night formula is the only thing that causes the horned crescent to appear level, meaning that the sun is directly under the moon at sunset. If the visible crescent moon were to appear on March 16, directly over the setting sun, it would for all intent and purpose, be exactly horizontal or level.

What does the Level Horned Crescent mean?

The only reason that this sign is taken to mean something, is that it generally coincides with the new moon nearest the vernal equinox, usually March 21/22. (This reckoning, nearest the vernal equinox, is used by many to determine the beginning of the year on Yahuwah’s calendar, but is it the correct method?)  It is not the proximity to the equinox that causes the moon to appear level or horizontal. It is the proximity to the day when the when the length of the day and night are equal, around March 16 at latitude 35 deg North.

Testing the theory by changing latitudes

What happens in the southern hemisphere when we have the beginning of the biblical year in spring in the northern hemisphere? Is the signal of the level horned crescent the same “down under?”

Since I reside in the USA and generally have my focus there, lets look at a latitude in the southern hemisphere that generally corresponds with my longitude. I chose Santiago, Chile, which is only generally similar in longitude, but more closely related in latitude, since it is located at 33 deg South approx. This puts it about the same position in the southern hemisphere corresponding to my latitude in the northern hemisphere. (Although I am actually just north of 29 deg North in Apalachicola Florida)

But the question is, what is happening in Santiago when we are having spring? If you remember your science from high school, you’ll remember that Santiago, i.e. the southern hemisphere, is experiencing the shifting into the fall season, as we are entering into the spring season. So what does this do to the theory of the level horned crescent.

Spring in northern hemisphere; fall in southern hemisphere
Santiago Chile March 18 2010

Here’s an image from the astronomy program Stellarium, a free download from

As you can see, when we are entering the spring in the northern hemisphere and see a level horned crescent here, it is not the same in the southern hemisphere. In the fall in the southern hemisphere, the visible crescent at the new moon appears as it does in the 7th month in the northern hemisphere. The only difference is that it is a “MIRROR IMAGE,” appearing in the reverse image of what it appears here in the 7th month. You can tell as the moon is illuminated from the opposite side that it is in the northern hemisphere.
Fall in southern hemisphere; spring in northern hemisphere
Santiago, Chile Sep 9 2010

In the fall in the southern hemisphere, the visible crescent nearest the autumnal equinox appears as a level horned crescent, similar to how it appears in the spring in the northern hemisphere.

Is the “level horned crescent” the signal for the beginning of Yahuwah’s biblical year for the WHOLE world?

Given the variations and appearances in the astronomy between the northern and southern hemisphere, and the opposing scenarios of the visible crescent moon, the question has to be asked;

Is the visible crescent moon, nearest the vernal equinox, in the northern hemisphere, appearing as a level horned crescent, the signal for the WHOLE world to begin the biblical year as Yahuwah ordained?

Personally, I don’t believe this is the sign, but I will leave that for you to decide.

And here’s one more question for you to ponder. Does the biblical year begin in the southern hemisphere when we begin it in the northern hemisphere? Or does it begin in their spring? This question rises of course, because the level horned crescent sign is not the same for them.

Please feel free to email me with comments, feedback or questions.

Saturday, October 23, 2010

The Pleiades: What Are The Odds?

Job 38:31  Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades


This article discusses the possible involvement of the Pleiades in the determination of Yahuwah’s calendar of scripture for the beginning of the biblical year in the spring. It also questions the astronomical odds of this event happening not once, but twice each year.

Astronomical Odds

What are the odds of the moon and the Pleiades appearing near each other, not once, but twice a year, exactly six months apart?

And if that is not enough to boggle your thinking, what are the odds of it happening twice a year, then a third time in the second or third year to indicate the need for a 13th month? Let’s have a closer look. There are some very remarkable characteristics about the Pleiades, considering the astronomy, but first some background.

The Pleiades in the Holy Bible

We find the Pleiades mentioned only twice in Yahuwah’s Holy Scriptures in the book of Job. It makes it seem almost insignificant, considering it’s lack of notoriety. So, with barely a mention, does the Pleiades have any significance to us today.

A Connection between Moses and the Pleiades

Earlier this year, I uncovered some interesting information about the Pleiades and wrote a paper that possibly connects some dots between Moses and the Pleaides and Yahuwah’s calendar. You can see that article, as well as a related article here:

Astronomy of the moon and the Pleiades

The astronomy of the Pleiades confirms a particular aspect that seems more than just coincidental to Yah’s Calendar in the heavens. Our moon and the Pleiades make an appearance together, that is in close proximity to each other, twice a year. This happens once in the spring and again in the fall, 6 months apart.

Pleiades and the visible crescent moon in the spring

In the spring, the new visible crescent moon is seen in conjunction or close proximity to the Pleiades in what strongly suggests the first month of the biblical year. They are seen traveling, seemingly together, shortly after the appearance of the first visible crescent, usually 2-3 days following the conjunction, as the moon is setting in the western sky, just after sunset. This is true whether you are in the northern, or southern, hemispheres.

Pleiades and the full Moon in the fall

In the fall, the full moon is seen in conjunction or close proximity to the Pleiades, exactly 6 months later, or in the 7th month of the biblical  calendar. This is a confirmation that the year was begun at the correct time. If you see this event, and you are not in the 7th month of the biblical calendar, you may have begun the year prematurely, placing you in the 6th month in your calculated calendar. Appearance of the moon and the Pleiades together in the fall of the year also gives you a reckoning point to know when the 1st month of the next year will begin. It’s a win-win situation in both cases.

Pleiades confirms beginning and middle of Yah’s calendar year

If you begin the biblical year a month too early, you will find that by the time you reach the 7th month on your calendar, you will not see the moon and the Pleaides rise together in alignment. This is because you are probably in the 6th month of the year and not the 7th.

When the full moon rises near and in alignment with the Pleiades, it confirms and signals two events. First, it confirms that your calendar is in the correct 7th month of the calendar.

Second, it should give you the signal for the beginning of the 1st month of the next year, 177 days from the new moon of the 7th month. Either way, the appearance of the Pleiades in close alignment with the moon signals and confirms the beginning and middle of the year on Yah’s calendar. And it does that from any place on earth. It is not location specific or limiting.

You can read more about the background on the Pleiades in the articles linked above.

Astronomical Odds of the moon and the Pleiades appearing together

Now for some astronomical odds about the Pleiades. Science tell us that the Pleiades is approximately 379 light years from earth. In other words, IF we could travel at the speed of light, it would take 379 years to get there. A little too far to begin a journey considering our short lifespan. The website puts the distance at 2.2 quadrillion miles.

Here’s some excerpted text (with slight editing) about our galaxy and the Pleiades from a paper by Clifton Emahiser:

Our Galaxy

“There are at least thirty billion stars in this one galaxy, which is shaped like a biconvex lens. Our own sun is one of the minor stars in this system, and its position is about 2/3rds of the way out toward one edge of the galaxy. We are some 30,000 light years away from the center of the galaxy.

Since  one  light  year  is  about  5,870,000,000,000  miles,  our  distance  from  the center  of  the  galaxy,  being  30,000  times  farther,  is  more  than  one  sextillion  miles.  In numerals it is 1,761 followed by 15 zeros. The entire galaxy, this vast lens shaped mass of  stars,  rotates  around  its  collective  center  of  gravity,  the  whole  galaxy  making  one rotation in about 200 million years.

The Pleiades

The center of gravity of the galaxy is marked by the star Alcyone, which is the brightest star in the star cluster known as the Pleiades. Considering that this is nearly two sextillion miles  away  from  us,  it  isn’t  easy  to  get  acquainted  with  it.  Our  knowledge  on  the subject  came  within  the  lifetime  of  men  still  alive.  It  is  amazing,  but  in  Job  38:31  Yahweh asks Job, ‘ Canst thou bind the sweet influence of Pleiades?' Yes, it is a sweet influence, for it keeps us on our course so we don't wander aimlessly through space until we collide with some mighty solar system. It is also worth noting that the Hebrew word for Pleiades, is kee-maw, which also means pivot or hinge.

Scientists indicate that the Pleiades appear to be moving through space, yet never going anywhere. Moving, but not going anywhere. How could that happen?  Recently I questioned how this could occur and believe I may have stumbled on an answer.

Imagine a line from your eyes, looking not just at, but straight through and past the Pleiades, to the far side of the visible galaxy or universe, which science also tells us is rotating.

If the Pleaides is stationary (for purposes of demonstration) then the backdrop of the visible universe would not only appear to be moving, it would make the Pleiades appear to be moving against the backdrop. Hence the effect of the Pleiades seeming to move, but never going anywhere. It may be a little difficult at first to wrap your mind around that, but it does make sense.

Summary and conclusion

The distance between earth and the Pleiades is approximately 379 light years, or about 2 sextillion miles.

The Pleiades appears to be moving through space, turning as it would seem, as the hub of our known universe.

Yet, twice a year, our moon, a little over 2 quadrillion miles from the Pleiades mysteriously lines up with the Pleiades twice a year, six months apart.

This alignment of the moon and the Pleiades simply has to be more than coincidental, as it happens not once, but twice a year.

And now it appears that it also lines up a third time in alternate second and third years to signal the need to adjust the lunisolar year with an extra month.

What Are The Odds?

Given the astronomical facts of vast proportions and distances, what are the odds of this alignment happening right on schedule with Yahuwah’s calendar?

I’ll leave that for you to ponder. It certainly is a testament to the grandeur and order of Yahuwah.

Please feel free to email me with your thoughts or comments about this developing idea.

Paul W Puckett
October 23 2010

Thursday, October 21, 2010

The Pleiades Confirms Yahuwah's Calendar of the Heavens

When the full moon rises in the evenings of Oct 24th and 25th, the 17th and 18th days of the 7th month on Yah's calendar this year, it will be in close proximity to the Pleaides, signaling confirmation of the 7th month.  This closeness of the full moon and the Pleiades did not occur in Sept-Oct, the 6th month of the biblical year, although some calendar followers celebrated the 7th month at that time.

The Pleaides signaled that a 13th month needed to be inserted in March-April of 2010,... thus confirming that April-May would be the first month of this year. If the year began in April-May, then Oct-Nov would be the 7th month, which we are in now. 

The moon will rise about 15 minutes slightly ahead and to the upper right of the Pleiades on the evening of the 24th , and slightly behind and to the lower left of the Pleiades by about 15 minutes on the evening of the 25th. 

It will take your eyes awhile to adjust to the night sky and you may not be able to see the Pleiades immediately upon rising, but you should be able to see it by about 9PM Eastern Time. Binoculars may be effective in helping to locate the Pleaides before you actually see the star cluster.

Feel free to drop me a note in an email if you are successful in spotting the Pleiades.

Here's a link to a more in-depth article on the Moses-Pleiades connection:
And here's another link to an article by an astronomer working on the Nebra Sky Disk project;

Friday, October 15, 2010

Fasting and the Day of Atonement: It May Not Be What You Think!

If you believe fasting from food is the only command regarding the Day of Atonement, the linked study will open your eyes. Yahuwah desires so much more for us. As the Day of Atonement draws closer this year, I anticipate learning more about what Yahuwah desires for us in our relationship with Him. He is ever faithful to bring new insights when I am open and receptive to them.
Over the last couple of days, He has brought a study before me that caused me to reexamine my preconceived ideas and opinions of what I thought was meant by the Day of Atonement and particularly fasting on that day, which scripture appears to command. I quickly learned it was not what is presented and what I thought at all. In addition to overturning my thinking and believing, it is about so much more.

If you desire to be in closer relationship to Him, and desire to do His will, then this linked study (pdf download) is a must read.

Be blessed.

Saturday, October 2, 2010

The Very Last Deception of Satan

Tossing out the Writings of Ellen White: Returning to Egypt

If you are a Seventh Day Adventist, or former SDA, and you have adopted the sunrise reckoning of the day, and daylight hours only for the Sabbath, you may have essentially fulfilled some of the end time prophecies of Ellen White. Ellen White told us that in the last days, near the end, that her writings, for all practical purposes, would be made void. The description of that fulfillment is found in the following quotes:

The very last deception of Satan will be to make of none effect the testimony of the Spirit of God. "Where there is no vision, the people perish" (Proverbs 29:18). Satan will work ingeniously, in different ways and through different agencies, to unsettle the confidence of God's remnant people in the true testimony. He will bring in spurious visions to mislead, and will mingle the false with the true, and so disgust people that they will regard everything that bears the name of visions as a species of fanaticism; but honest souls, by contrasting false and true, will be enabled to distinguish between them.  {10MR 311.1}  (Ellen White's writings are often referred to as the Testimony of the Spirit of God. They are meant to enhance or confirm the words of scripture.)

One of the most blatant references in the writings of Ellen White that show this distinction and fulfillment, has to do with the events surrounding the crucifixion of our saviour Yahushua. It is found in the following quote:

"That was a never-to-be-forgotten Sabbath to the sorrowing disciples, and also to the priests, rulers, scribes, and people. At the setting of the sun on the evening of the preparation day the trumpets sounded, signifying that the Sabbath had begun."  (Desire of Ages 775)

"From even unto even, shall ye celebrate your Sabbath." Said the angel: "Take the word of God, read it, understand, and ye cannot err. Read carefully, and ye shall there find what even is, and when it is. I asked the angel if the frown of God had been upon His people for commencing the Sabbath as they had. I was directed back to the first rise of the Sabbath, and followed the people of God up to this time, but did not see that the Lord was displeased, or frowned upon them. I inquired why it had been thus, that at this late day we must change the time of commencing the Sabbath. Said the angel: "Ye shall understand, but not yet, not yet." Said the angel: "If light come, and that light is set aside or rejected, then comes condemnation and the frown of God; but before the light comes, there is no sin, for there is no light for them to reject." I saw that it was in the minds of some that the Lord had shown that the Sabbath commenced at six o'clock, when I had only seen that it commenced at "even," and it was inferred that even was at six. I saw that the servants of God must draw together, press together. 

It is clear in the above statements, that the Sabbath (as well as all other days) begins at sunset. The statements support what has been observed for centuries by the Hebrews, albeit intermittent at times.

There are several implications, or problems when dealing with the statements above.

1. Sabbath, and all other biblical days begin at sunset, or Ellen White is wrong.

2. If Ellen White is wrong, and it's possible, then does this make her invalid as a prophet?

3. In any case, if she was accurate in this statement, and we disregard it's intended meaning, what have we done to her stature as a prophet? What have we done to the meanings of her words? And to the words of scripture? We may be on unholy or dangerous ground if we disregard, or even slightly twist the words and meanings to make them fit what we believe or want to believe.

In order to reckon the day by the rising of the sun, and observe the sabbath for only the daylight hours, we have to have TOTAL DISREGARD for the writings of Ellen White. We cannot pick and choose, using one principle here, another there, and tossing out what we don't like because it doesn't fit our framework of belief or thinking.

The Egyptians appear to have historically swapped the halves of the day, daylight, then darkness, instead of what appears to be the biblical reckoning of the day; darkness then daylight. So one has to ask; by using the sunrise reckoning of the day, beginning the day at sunrise, and observing the daylight hours only for the Sabbath, have we returned to EGYPT?

I admit the possibility that I could be wrong about this. If that proves to be the case, I will stand immediately corrected. In the meantime, Unless something absolutely concrete and without question surfaces, I will choose the path of least error. I will keep the hours that appear to be bibilically correct, sunset to sunset for the sabbath. I will observe the full 24 hour day as the sabbath until clear correction is made.

I'm keeping the part of the day sunrisers are anyhow, and one thing that I don't want to do, is to shortchange God on time and not be present when He has arranged to meet with me at a specifically appointed time.

(NOTE: Many verses in scripture are presented to "prove" the sunrise reckoning of the day. Most, if not all, are verses that can be interpreted in both ways; either sunrise reckoning or sunset reckoning. Because a verse can be interpreted in both ways, it does not make one position or the other valid unless the position can be supported by corroborating evidence.)

Thursday, September 9, 2010

The Different Ends of the 14th Day of the Biblical Month

There are two different Hebrew terms used to define the ends of the 14th day of the Biblical Month. These terms are found in Exodus 12:6 and Exodus 12:18. The first term is "between the evenings" and logically appears at the beginning of the 24 hour period of the 14th day. The other term is "even" or "at even" and appears to define the end of the 24 hour period, at the end of the 14th day and the beginning of the 15th day. These terms only fit logically in a sunset reckoning to begin the 24 hour day. When they are used in a sunrise reckoning of the day, they force events and chronology to be placed in awkward places in time, and force other events out of their proper time. See other articles on this blog, or linked, particularly the article on two Passovers in a sunrise reckoning.

Below is a graphic illustration of where the terms should be, both in the sunset reckoning and the sunrise reckoning. Notice that in a sunrise reckoning, the events cannot be harmonized with scripture.

If you find that this presentation has errors, please feel free to challenge what you see and send me an email.

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

The Conflict of Sunrise Reckoning of the Day and Exodus 12

A Challenge to the Sunrise Reckoning of the day

Exodus 12:6 and 12:18 appear to present a conflict when viewed through the sunrise reckoning of the day. These verses point to a specific point in time and at specific events. 

Both points in time occur on the fourteenth day of the month, at even, or between the evenings. In the sunrise reckoning of the day, there is only one point in time that these verses can occur. That point in time is at the end of the daylight period of the 14th day, beginning the evening and night period. 

I believe the difficulty in reconciling this scenario is caused by a misunderstanding or lack understanding of the phrase "between the evenings." This phrase occurs about half a dozen times in OT scripture at very key points of understanding. If you do not have an understanding of "between the evenings," this may be where you need to begin examining this dilemma.

If you believe this challenge to be in error, please feel free to challenge this material. I remain open to learning if this conflict can be resolved by scripture.

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

Why Two Passovers in a Sunrise Reckoning of the Biblical Day

 (Click one of the links at the bottom of text for full article)

Many Lunar Sabbatarians today have or are adopting the reckoning of the Biblical Day that begins at sunrise. In addition, many of those observe 12 hours for Shabbat, instead of the 24 hours that many of us have been taught. Which is correct? Does the scriptural day begin at sunrise or sunset? Is Shabbat to be observed for 12 hours or 24? Does night come before day, or is it the other way around?

The chronology surrounding the Passover, Exodus, and the Crucifixion may provide some answers as to how the Biblical day should be reckoned. At the least, the timing and chronology of the events point out some unavoidable problems with sunrise reckoning. 

In the end, there are some chronology problems that happen with the sunrise reckoning that simply cannot be ignored.

The link provided below is for a paper that reveals some very interesting manipulation of scripture that is necessary in an attempt to make the sunrise reckoning of the day credible.

Please feel free to point out errors, omissions, unscriptural claims, etc.

Monday, August 2, 2010

Sunrise Reckoning and Between the Evenings

Do scriptural days have beginnings and ends? Do they start at sunrise or sunset? A closer look at "beyn ha arbayim" or "between the evenings" gives us some very good clues.

Sunrise Reckoning of the scriptural day and Yahshua's last Passover

Was Yahshua's last Passover with His Disciples on the 13th day?

Thursday, July 29, 2010

Does Exodus 12:18 Fit in a Sunrise Reckoning of the Day

Where Does Exodus 12:18 fit in the Biblical Feast Calendar?

Exodus 12:18 presents a bit of a conumdrum for those who reckon the biblical day by sunrise. This verse points to a particular place in time in the biblical feast chronology, specifically the point of transition between the 14th day and the 15th day. It says, "......on the fourteenth day at even." 

With a sunrise reckoning of the day, you only have one "even" and it is in the middle of the 24 hour period of the day, at the end of the daylight period, at sunset. Theoretically, Ex 12:18 should go at the end of the 14th day, but there is no "EVEN" at the end of the day, as it leads into dawn and sunrise. 

This methodology of reckoning the day forces Exodus 12:18 to be placed at the only other logical place in time, at sunset in the middle of the sunrise reckoned day. Since this is the point in time when the traditional Rabbinic Passover is held, it forces two separate festal events to occur at the same time, or overlap.

The graphic below should serve to demonstrate this problem visually:

Listed below are the observations and problems encountered between Exodus 12:18 and a sunrise reckoning of the day:

Ex 12:18 has nothing to do with the Feast of ULB except to define the beginning point at the end of the 14th day.

There is no scriptural command or support for Yahushua’s Passover with disciples on the 13th.

Traditional Rabbinic Passover and Feast of ULB cannot be merged into the same time period at the beginning of the evening on the 14th. Unfortunately, this is the only solution in a sunrise model of the day. And it is the problem of the 1st Century CE.

It needs to be understood that at the time of Yahushua’s Passover and Crucifixion, Passover and the Feast of ULB had been convoluted and merged, thereby presenting confusion in sorting out which was which, when one ended and the other began. John 18:28 is the most extreme example of this, indicated by the fact that it appears to contradict the other 3 gospel accounts of the events of the 14th day. This is also noted in Deu 16.

All commands for the Feast of ULB are on the 15th or the beginning of the 15th; not on the night of the 14th. This includes the removal of leaven from homes.

In a sunset model of the day, all of the events of the Passover and Crucifixion occur on the 14th day, according to scripture. This is impossible in a sunrise model of the day. There is no scriptural command or support for any of these events to occur on any other day.

In a sunset model of the day, there is an “even” at each end of the day, allowing for the proper timing and placement of events described in scripture.

In a sunrise model, there is only one “even” in a 24 hour day, in the middle of the 24 hour period, forcing certain events to be relocated.

Feel free to submit comments

Has The Meaning of "DAY" in Genesis Been Misinterpreted

A Closer Look At "Day" in Genesis: 12 Hours or 24? Sunrise or Sunset?
Here's some observations and questions to challenge your mental stewpot
I have read many papers, studied and looked at scripture over and over, and kept asking questions. What is the justification for sunrise reckoning of the day? And more importantly, what is the basis and support for sunrise sabbath and observance for only the daylight portion of the day, approximately 12 hours? Are there some things that are getting overlooked? The following are some observations and questions I have developed as I have looked at the account of Genesis 1 and 2, again and again.
"Sunrisers" hereafter refers to those holding a sunrise reckoning of the day, and daylight hours only observance of the Sabbath.

When I read a paper or study on the sunrise position of reckoning the day, usually the first thing I notice is a definition from Strong's Concordance:
Strong's Definition: from an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours)
Invariably, this seems to be the definition most "sunrisers" are relying on. But is it accurate? You might be interested to know that I have found Strong's to be the only place that I can find that definition at this point. If you have another source, I would sure like to see it. So if there is only one witness with this definition, is it accurate? And what is the source of Strong's information to formulate this definition?

Here's the observations and questions to tickle your mental palate:
How many days are in creation week?
What is the length of those days during creation week?
If one believes in the 7 literal days of creations, then those days must be approximately 24 hours. If there are 7 days (whole units) in the creation week, what is the justification and scriptural support for redefining the "day" in Genesis as only 12 hours? (Particularly on the first 3 days when the sun was not yet appointed.)
What is the length of the 7th day in creation week?
If it is not 24 hours, what is the scriptural support for redefining it into another time period in Gensis? (12 hours)
What is the definition of day in the creation week?
    Strong's Definition: from an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours)  
This is usually the first, and sometimes only, definition that those of the sunrise persuasion quote. Why is a definition used that could not have existed on the 1st day of creation?
What day was the sun "made" or activated during creation week?
This question of the definition of day has to be defined on day ONE, not on day FOUR.    One cannot simply redefine a day into 12 hours without support or confirmation from scripture.  
What does evening and morning mean on the 1st day of creation week, when no sun or moon was made/activated?
What is the meaning of day on the 1st day of creation week, when there was no sun and moon in play?
What is the scriptural support for 1/14th?
There are biblical principles for 1/10th, and 1/7th, (ten or seven). If the Sabbath is only 12 hours of daylight on the 7th day, (1/14th of a week) what is the biblical principle and support for 1/14th?
Recent studies about the cycle of 7 (septacircans) within the human body are very interesting. If this is a divine principle by design, what happens to our mind, body, and soul if we are not in harmony with that cycle? 
Here's a hypothetical question to consider:
According to sunrise reckoning, and daylight only observance of Sabbath, how would you know when to observe Sabbath if it was on one of the first three days of creation? Evening and morning existed, but no sunrise or sunset. (Remember, this is just hypothetical to make a point)
I'll be interested in your thoughts of course.

Friday, July 2, 2010

German Astronomer Confirms Possible Moses and Pleiades Connection

In 1999, the Nebra Sky Disk, one of the world's oldest archaeological artifacts was discovered in Nebra Germany. Considering its design, it may shed some light on Moses "beginning of months"

Sun or Moon? The Intercalary Rule on the Star Disc
Rahlf Hansen, Planetarium Hamburg,
(translated by Alex Leo, Planetarium Hamburg)

In an era where we have Organizers, GPS and radio controlled clocks it is difficult to imagine the difficulties encountered in early times to regulate their calendar. In those days the rhythms of the heavens were used to regulate time: the Sun provided the days and the years, the Moon provided the months and the weeks. Farmers need a solar calendar that shows the seasons. The narrow crescent evening Moon, known as the First Crescent, indicates the beginning of a new month just as the Islamic calendar still does today. But how does one reconcile the lunar year with the solar year, which is 11 days longer? In earlier times, this was done by introducing leap months.

We know of just such a rule from the Babylonian Cuneiform mul-apin text. If the First Crescent appears by the Seven Sisters star cluster, the Pleiades, during the spring month, in which the year begins, then this is a normal year. If, however, during this month the Moon does not appear in the Pleiades until the third day, it forms a wider crescent – a signal that a leap month must be added. It is exactly this phenomenon that is encrypted on the Star Disc. The width of the lunar crescent on the Star Disc corresponds to the Babylonian leap signal. On the first phase of the Star Disc are depicted the crescent, the golden circle, the seven point rosette and 25 additional golden points numbering 32 in total. The rosette is taken to represent the Pleiades. By interpreting the depiction as a record of an intercalary rule we’re not only explaining the width of the lunar Crescent but also providing an explanation for the number 32 and the meaning of the golden circle. The lunar month is 29.5 days long. If a leap month has to be added, the Moon will not appear in the Pleiades in its First Crescent phase but two days later with a wider crescent. In this case, 32 days must elapse from the previous First Crescent Moon. The 32 points on the Disc can thus be interpreted as the 32 days that elapse between the previous First Crescent Moon and the Moon appearing by the Pleiades in the spring month. As a leap signal, these 32 days are just as equally valid as the width of the lunar crescent. The leap signal is therefore doubly encoded on the Star Disc:

1.)  If a Moon Crescent having the thickness of the depicted crescent appears by the Pleiades in the Spring month, then this is a leap trigger.
2.)  If 32 days elapse from the First Crescent of the previous month (before the spring month) until the Moon in the spring month, then this is a leap trigger.

But the number 32 also has another meaning, linking the solar and lunar calendars. In 32 solar years, 33 lunar years elapse. If we interpret the golden disc as the Sun, then the 32 points are related to the Sun and we deduce the 32 solar years. If we also count the golden disc, then we get a total of 33. This refers to the Moon, the only remaining object on the disc, and so we get 33 lunar years.  

In Prof. Schlosser’s current interpretations, that have been extended and not contradicted in this text, the golden disc is interpreted as the Full Moon. Here it is also interpreted as the Sun. Sun OR Moon? The answer is Sun AND Moon. This is elaborated on in a further text. 3600 years ago the Pleiades disappeared in the dusk 12 days before the onset of Spring. If, ideally, the First Crescent Moon appears by the Pleiades on the last day of their visibility, then the Full Moon and the start of Spring coincide. The Full Moon in the Spring Month then signals the start of Spring and with it, in many cultures, the start of the new year. The Full Moon thus symbolizes the new solar year. Therefore the golden disc can be interpreted as the Full Moon in the Spring month AND as the Sun.

So here we have an astoundingly complex and nested design. On the one hand, the 32 golden points encode the leap signal of the 32 days to the Moon-Pleiades positioning. As well as symbolizing both the Full Moon by the Pleiades in Autumn (Schlosser’s interpretation) and the Full Moon in the Spring month at the beginning of Spring, the golden disc also symbolizes the Sun in relation to the 32 golden points representing solar years, and the Sun in relation to the start of the solar year at the Spring Full Moon. Via its width, the lunar crescent near the Pleiades (the rosette) directly indicates the leap signal and, together with the 32 golden points and the golden disc, symbolizes the 33 lunar years, that correspond to the 32 solar ones. The rosette representing the Pleiades shows, as Schlosser explained, exact dates in Spring (with the Crescent Moon) and in Autumn (with the Full Moon). And on the other hand, it triggers, together with the wide lunar crescent, the leap signal in the lunar calendar. 

This interpretation explains the number of golden points, the meaning of the golden disc, the width of the lunar crescent and why the lunar crescent is larger than the golden disc. If the Star Disc was used as a pictorial comparison of the width of the real Crescent Moon in the Spring month by the Pleiades, then the latter is the deciding object on the Disc and was made bigger than the golden disc.

In an era when no numerical intercalary rules were yet available, any celestial observations would have needed to reconcile the lunar and solar motions. The calendar was only regulated by these observations. In its time, this knowledge was very beneficial and can be considered as the Bronze Age hi-tech know-how. An obsession with such complexities need not astound us.

Whether this knowledge emerged locally or from as far a field as Mesopotamia, remains open. The clues on the encrypted world view and the rosette shape mentioned earlier however do not exclude a possible Mesopotamian origin and are in fact supported by this interpretation.  

See my previous article posted in March, "Moses, the Pleiades, and the Nebra Sky Disk"

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Restoration of God's Timekeeping

In the time of the end, every divine institution is to be restored. The breach made in the law at the time the Sabbath was changed by man, is to be repaired. PK 678

There are many signs today indicating revival of the truths of scripture that have long been buried and hidden. Many things are being revealed, particularly God's system of timekeeping according to the lunar-solar calendar of scripture. 
This calendation has always been used to pinpoint the feast days or appointed times, but it is coming to light that the 7th day Sabbath also is pinpointed on this calendar. 

Robert Stearns had a dream in the recent past, that is considered to be prophetic. He shares that the dream revealed the restoration of God's calendar of scripture.

Is it the truth? Have a look at the video and decide for yourself.

Do the Moon Phases Signal the Lunar Sabbaths

The Moon Phases May Not Always Appear As They Seem

Anyone who studies the Hebrew lunar-solar calendar and particularly the 7th day Sabbaths on that calendar eventually comes face to face with the idea that the moon phases line up perfectly on the day or evening before the Sabbaths. Is this the case? Can the moon phases always be counted on to signal the Sabbath with any degree of certainty?

The theory says that the first quarter waxing moon appears with 50% illumination on the evening before the first Sabbath on the 8th of the month. Secondly, the full moon appears with 100% illumination on the at the end of the 14th daylight to signal the Sabbath of the 15th day of the month. And finally, the 3rd quarter waning moon shows 50% illumination on the evening before the Sabbath of the 22nd day of the month. Conjunction happens generally on the 29th day of the month in a 29 day month, but on 30th day in a 30 day month.

If one plots out the times of the phases in a linear manner, it can easily be seen that the phases do not always line up. As a matter of fact, their alignment from week to week is irregular to say the least. Granted, there are some irregularities that come with this kind of graphing, particularly when it does not include the time of the day the astronomical phase. This anomaly can distort the line of consistency to some degree.

Below are graphs showing the months of the biblical year 2009-2010. The data used to formulate these graphs is based on Universal Time GMT and is taken form a sole source at

Three methods for reckoning the beginning of the months have been shown to show comparisons between reckonings. The first column represents the method that signals the new visible crescent as the 1st day of the new month. The second column represents using the sunset following the conjunction as the first day of the new month. And in the last column, the 2nd day of the month (1st day of the week) is begun when the new visible crescent is seen.

This project focuses on an evening to evening reckoning of the day, but for the purposes of this work, should not be a hindrance to demonstrating the intent.

This project was developed just recently, so it may not be without some questions. Please feel free to evaluate the project idea, the data and let me know of any problems you find.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Finding the Moon: Following Yahweh's Calendar

Following the moon cycle:The path of Yah's Calendar

The lunar orbit of the moon takes approximately 29.5 days to travel from it's invisible beginning, to return to its recurring appointment with the sun, in which it again becomes a shadowy figure, as it lies too close to alignment with the sun to be seen.

If we are following the calendar of scripture, ordained by our God Yahweh, it is essential to observe the moon so that we know where we are on His calendar. 

Throughout the month though, there are unmistakable signs of where the moon is, in its planetary path. We can know to the day, what day of the lunar month it is, simply by observing the moon, and its position in the sky.

Below is a handy chart that you can print and use for observing the moon throughout each month.

 The information on this chart is based on current known available information. If you find errors, or additional information that would be of benefit, please feel free to let me know. 

Saturday, May 22, 2010

New Moon Visible Crescent and the Pleiades April 16, 2010

The new lunar crescent on April 16 2010 and it's visual proximity to the Pleiades, signaled the first month of the biblical year 2010-2011. A similar scene was also seen on March 20 2010 when the moon and its' visual relationship to the Pleiades signaled the need for the insertion of a 13th month for last year. The need for the 13th month was also signaled by the new moon for the 13th month occurring before the turn of the year from winter to spring on March 20 2010. Although the Pleiades appears very similar to the little dipper (Ursa Minor), it is not. The little dipper was high in the sky to the north at the same time this scene took place.

Below is an image from the Stellarium astronomy program showing the relationship of the moon and the Pleiades on March 20 2010

Monday, March 29, 2010

Moses, the Pleiades and the Nebra Sky Disk

Moses, the Pleiades, and the Nebra Sky Disk
What did Moses see, and when did he see it?

Before the Exodus

Somewhere deep in the heart of the Nile Delta in Egypt, around the mid 1400’s BC, the Israelites were about to gain their freedom after 430 years of captivity, as slaves to the Egyptians. It is approaching the time in bible and world history known as “The Exodus.”

Just prior to the exodus, God gave Moses some instructions. In Exodus 12:2, God said to Moses, "You are to begin your calendar with this month; it will be the first month of the year for you.” (CJB) We know this to be the spring of the year, at the time of the Passover, as the very next instructions were the preparation for, and the participation in, what would become a memorial for all time. This first month of the biblical year was known as Abib, meaning “green ears” or the time of the spring barley harvest. God’s instruction to Moses begs the question, what did God show to Moses to indicate the beginning of the biblical year?

Beginning of the biblical year

What did God mean when He said, “You are to begin your calendar this month?” Obviously He demonstrated or showed Moses something, and the question since that time, about 3500 years ago is, what did God show to Moses so that he could reckon the first month of the biblical year? Not only reckon it at that time; but to possibly reckon it for all time. Since then, the moon has played an important role in God’s sacred calendar. Not only has the moon played a part, but the sun and the stars as well. The heavenly bodies are each figured into God’s calendar and set times. Whether they are called seasons, mo’ed’s, appointed times, feasts, or holy days, they are all set forth by the celestial bodies.

Elements of God’s calendar in the heavens

God said, "Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to divide the day from the night; let them be for signs, seasons, days and years; and let them be for lights in the dome of the sky to give light to the earth"; and that is how it was. God made the two great lights — the larger light to rule the day and the smaller light to rule the night — and the stars. Gen 1:14-16

How the months of the calendar are reckoned

For thousands of years, those following the biblical calendar have reckoned their months by the moon, and the years by the sun. Usually the month is begun following the first sighting of the visible crescent moon. The first day is celebrated as new moon day, then the 6 work days, followed by the 7th day sabbath. According to the criteria given throughout scripture, Sabbaths can be found on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th days of the month, following the new moon. Then the cycle begins again. Over the millennia, all calendars have undergone corruption and aberration. The 7th day sabbath has been celebrated by Jews and other Sabbathkeepers on the Roman Saturday since early Christianity, and certainly by the 4th century when the Jewish calendar was set in stone so to speak. The corruption of the calendars is a subject for another time. No matter what man has done to the calendars over the millennia, God is about to set it right. The original calendar of scripture is being restored to its rightful place.

Standards for reckoning the beginning of the year

In the paragraph above, we discussed the beginning of each month, but what about the first month of the year? Since scripture talks about the month of Abib, or green ears, one standard is held to be the barley harvest, when the barley has matured enough for the “wave sheaf” celebration on the 16th day of the first month, the day of the resurrection of Christ.

The other standards, which are more widely held today, is the visible crescent moon in relationship to the vernal equinox; meaning the point at which the sun crosses the equinoctial line, and the days begin growing longer, and the nights shorter. At about the moment of the equinox, the days and nights are equal length.

One standard says the new moon nearest the equinox; the other standard says the new moon after the equinox. With these two standards, each side is right some of the time, and one side is right all the time, depending on which side you’re on. About half of the time, the new moon nearest the vernal equinox falls on the side after the equinox, so that puts that group in harmony with the other group. Then there is the standard that says Passover cannot fall before the vernal equinox. In other words, it’s a mess, and it has gone on for hundreds of years, each camp saying the other camp is wrong. So is there truth to be found in any of this mess? Is the moon and its relationship to the equinox the final arbiter of the beginning of the year? Let’s explore a little further to see.

The Equinox is not as it appears

Let’s throw a “monkey wrench” in here. We’ll plug in another factor that isn’t often considered. When the instructions were given to Moses in about 1446BC (still disputed), the vernal equinox was in a different place in the heavens at the start of the biblical year than it is now. In other words, when the sun crossed the equinoctial line in the heavens, it was in Aries. But it is not there today. Josephus, the noted historian tells us that the sun was in Aries at the time of the Passover in biblical times. So we know from history and scripture that at the time of the exodus, the sun and the visible crescent moon were in Aries, or that section of the heavens that has been labeled as Aries. It was still in the same relationship at the time of Christ. This is in the first month of spring, and the beginning of the biblical year.

Let me suggest a caveat in at this point. If you rely on the information from astrologers and the mainstream informational pundits, to tell you where the sun is in the heavens when it crosses the equinox, you’re in trouble. The astrological prevaricators will tell you that the first sign on the spring side of the equinox is Aries. And 3500 years ago, they would be right; but not today. By the time the sun and the moon arrive in Aries today, the vernal equinoctial line is in Pisces, or the place in the heavens that astrologers have assigned to it. The equinox used to arrive in Aries around Mar 20 or 21. Today it doesn’t arrive in Aries until April 18th. It’s a shifting process called “precession of the equinox.”  It’s what accounts for the wobble of the earth on its axis causing the equinox to drift backward in time. So the equinox is not the likely candidate to permanently reckon the beginning of the year.

 This image shows the backward drift, or “precession” of the equinoxes. This affects both equinoxes and solstices, shifting these imaginary boundaries in the heavens out of place from their original locations. Currently, the vernal equinox has drifted backward into Pisces, and almost into Aquarius. Instead of the sun being in Aries when spring comes, it is in Pisces. The vernal equinox does not arrive in Aries with the sun until April 18th.

What about “…and the stars?”

It was about this time during my research that I realized that most of the focus of the celestial bodies of God’s calendar is on the sun and the moon. I started asking what the role of the stars is in the calendar. “. . . the larger light to rule the day and the smaller light to rule the night — and the stars.” But what were we doing to include the stars in the reckoning? It was like we were leaving out a third of the equation or formula. In reality, all three of the heavenly objects should be included in the calendar.

The Pleiades

When I started looking at this dilemma, I suspected there had to be something else that Moses would have seen, in addition to the visible crescent moon. And sure enough there is. In the Redshift astronomy program, I set the program to look at the evening sky at the time of the exodus, the first month and spring of the year, to see if I could see what Moses saw. It wasn’t until I unplugged everything else that wasn’t there at the time of Moses, that I saw what I believe he saw. When Moses looked at the sky at that time, he didn’t know about the “astrological” signs, and all the other aberrations man has assigned. Granted there are references to celestial signs in scripture, i.e. Orion, Pleiades, and Arcturas, etc. But there were none of the labels of man’s reckoning as we see today. If Moses wrote the book of Job, as some suggest he did, most definitely he would have known about these particular stars and their places in the sky.

It didn’t take long to discover what I was fairly certain Moses saw. But I had to test the theory. So I began looking at the same time every year, by looking first for the new moon, then the visible crescent after the equinox. I used the new moon after the equinox as I believe the sun, as well as the moon, has to be fully out of winter in order to begin the New Year. The days must be longer than the nights. I believe this study will eventually bear that out. By the time I advanced the sun and the moon into Aries in the astronomy program, there it was; what I had been looking for. It was the Pleiades, in close proximity to the crescent moon. Now I needed to test the theory a little more and every time it has held up. At a point around the time of the first visible crescent after the equinox, the moon arrived in the vicinity of the Pleiades. It was the kind of evidence I was looking for. And so far, it appears that the same thing happens every year, in the first month of spring. So far, I’ve checked the last 10 years for starters and the Pleiades and the new crescent moon keep company usually around the end of March and into mid-April.

The Character of the Pleiades
Now you see it; now you don’t

The Pleiades, also known as the "seven sisters," lies near the ecliptic plane of the sun, moon and the planets in the heavens. All of the celestial objects that travel in the ecliptic plane pass near the Pleiades at some point during the year.

The Pleiades is not visible all year; but it is visible when it is supposed to be, and needed for confirmation. The Pleiades is actually what is known as a star cluster, with 6 of the 7 main stars visible to the naked eye at various times. It looks very much like a “little dipper.” The most prominent star in the cluster is Alcyone, one of the seven sisters in Greek mythology, which is the third brightest star in Taurus. The remaining stars of the "seven sisters'' are Electra, Celaeno, Taygeta, Maia, Merope, and Asterope, some of which form a big dipper pattern with other bright stars in the cluster, making it easy to recognize.

Visibility of the Pleiades varies throughout the year. The Pleiades start to rise in the night sky in June, just before sunrise, and they begin to rise a little earlier each morning afterwards. They are best viewed in December, when they rise as the sun is setting, and then set at sunrise, allowing them to be seen throughout the entire night. As the winter progresses, they begin to rise a bit later after sunset. By March and mid-April, you can only see them for a short time setting in the West, just after sunset. Since the Pleiades are located in the sign of Taurus, they are too close to the sun to be visible during May, when the sun is also in the same sign. On a clear night the unaided eye can usually spot at least six of the brightest stars in the cluster, but it actually consists of hundreds of stars.

What role do the Pleiades play in the heavens?

It seems to be somewhat commonly known that the Pleiades signaled the time of planting in the spring, and the time to harvest in the fall. So it makes sense that it would be visible with the new crescent at the beginning of the year in spring. Not only is it visible with the crescent in the spring to signal the beginning of the planting season, it is also visible in the 7th month of the biblical year, the harvest season, when it is a full moon; i.e. “harvest moon.” I’m convinced that one of the reasons that night watches were held in ancient times is that someone could observe and record what was happening with the moon and the stars at night.

Almost all ancient cultures watched and had a name for Pleiades, usually associated with agriculture and moisture/rainfall. The ancients knew this cluster as the "rainy stars" because their rising heralded the beginning of autumn and the onset of the rainy season in many parts of the world. Inca farmers watched Pleiades to assess future crops. Early Greek seamen knew them as the "sailing stars" and would only sail when the stars were visible at night. One of the Navajos' names for the group is the "Hard Flint Boys," and Subaru is the Japanese name for Pleiades (note the Subaru logo).

Where is the Pleiades anyway?

It depends on the time of year. Pleiades lies near the ecliptic (the path of the sun). Around the first of November it will be rising in the east (about where the sun did) just at twilight. In early February the Hard Flint Boys will be directly overhead at twilight. By early May they'll be setting just at twilight, ahead of Orion. During May and early June Pleiades is absent from the sky--it can't be seen because it's too close to the sun. Then it appears (and remains) as a morning star until November. Between November and May watch for the Hard Flint Boys dancing and scuffling along the ecliptic.

Finding the Pleiades in the night sky

Pleiades can be a little hard to see, and to many it appears as a small cloud. Its appearance varies from night to night depending on atmospheric viewing conditions. Sometimes, when conditions are good, you can see all the 'Seven Sisters' twinkling. First find Orion's Belt--the three stars, close together, in a straight line. Then following the indicated line in the figure below, passing just below Aldebaran, as it points to Pleiades. The figure below is Orion and Pleiades when they're high overhead.

The crescent’s last crossing of the Pleiades till 2023

The Pleiades and the crescent moon made a spectacular showing in the evening sky on Saturday March 20, 2010, when the moon occulted (moved in front of) some of the stars in the Pleiades cluster. Normally, only in close proximity, the moon does occasionally move in front of part of the cluster. It’s quite a sight. We won’t see that occultation again for another 13 years, till 2023.

Note: Although it is reported that this is the last occultation of the moon across the Pleiades until 2023, some astronomy sites and articles are reporting that a similar scenario will occur on April 16, 2010. Only visual observation will confirm this predicted scenario.

 This is an image from the astronomy program Stellarium (free at Sourceforge) on the night of March 20, 2010 when the moon occulted the Pleiades. Notice that it strongly resembles the little dipper. This image is as you would see from earth. If you rotate the image 90 degrees left, you will see the same image that is represented on the Nebra Sky Disk.

The Nebra Sky Disk

While researching the relationship of the new crescent moon and the Pleiades, I inadvertently learned of a relatively new celestial reckoning device of sorts that was discovered around 1999, quite by accident. A couple of treasure hunters in the vicinity of Nebra, Germany, found the disk and several other ancient and valuable artifacts with the help of metal detectors. They tried to make off with their loot, and fence it for profit. But as luck would have it, authorities caught up with them and retrieved the disk. No one knew for sure what they had when they recovered it.

The disk has been tested, deciphered, validated, and proven that it is authentic in terms of age and composition. It is estimated to have been buried around 1600BC, and it may have originated as far back as 1700-2100 BC. It is said to be at least 3600 years old. It may well be the oldest calendar or astronomical artifact known to date. This is the easy part.

What is not so easy is the interpretation of exactly what the disk shows. Even though it has been examined for 10 years now, it is still highly controversial as to its full intended meaning. One thing I noticed in reading several papers, articles and reviews, is that the authenticators seem to be missing a piece from their understanding, consideration and reviews. That piece is God’s sacred calendar of scripture. This is where it gets really interesting.

 The main areas of dispute seem to be that the markings appear that they should be from Egypt or Mesopotamia. But the artifact was found in Germany. Researchers state that Germany would not have followed a celestial reckoning such as this. The materials have been authenticated to have originated locally, meaning that the device was probably not made or fabricated in Egypt or Mesopotamia and brought to Germany. It remains somewhat of a mystery even today.

Some of the parts are fairly easily identified, and agreed upon. One that seems to be agreed on is the crescent, and the group of stars to the upper left of the crescent, which most scientists and researchers have identified as the Pleiades. One of the main disputes is over what the round object is on the left. Some say it is the sun, some say it is the moon. It appears to be inconclusive to some if the portrayal is daytime or nighttime.

The disc was originally smeared with rotten eggs. These would have caused a chemical reaction on its bronze surface, which would have turned the disc's background a deep violet color simulating a night sky out of which the gold-embossed stars would have shone.

Elements of the Nebra Sky Disk

Some authenticators and researchers insist that the round object to the left of center labeled sun is in fact the sun. Because of that, it is said the device is probably only valid as a marker for a solar eclipse as indicated.

Others say the round object is the moon, but seem to be without further explanation.

Since I am not an authority in such matters, I will not attempt to dispute what researchers, deciphering experts, and others have said. I will simply give my opinion based on how I see this device fitting into the overall picture of God’s sacred calendar.

I won’t deal with the planets shown near the crescent except to say when you set the astronomy program to the parameters given, i.e. April 16, 1699BC; those planets are part of the heavenly picture.

I agree that the crescent is in fact the crescent, and that the Pleiades are as shown. What is interesting is the relationship between the two. To demonstrate this point, here’s an image from an astronomy program taken on the evening of Saturday March 20 2010. It clearly demonstrates what the Nebra Sky Disk is showing.

 This image is from Redshift Astronomy program and is taken on March 20 2010 about 2130 hours. This would be about the time the moon passed in front of the Pleiades. What is most astounding about the crescent and the Pleiades on the disk, is that that at least one researcher says that it is portrayed in the position as it would be seen if a 13th month would need to be intercalated. This image is as you would see it from earth. If you rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise, you will see the image as it is represented on the disk. Interestingly, this biblical year, 2009-2010 needed a 13th month inserted. Notice the similarity between the astronomy program image and the representation on the disk. Whether it is true in the end remains to be seen. But it does seem to be a little more than coincidental.

It is at this juncture the point needs to be made or at least mentioned. The fact that the disk may suggest the insertion of a 13th month, and this year a 13th month needed to be inserted, it has to be considered that the beginning of the year is affirmed to start after the vernal equinox, and not before. In the end, this evidence could serve to eliminate the confusion of multiple Passovers, and whether the year should be started with the new moon nearest the vernal equinox. The equinox seems to have drifted out of the picture.

As far as the identity of the other object, I believe it is the moon; the full moon, and here’s why. If the disk portrays the crescent moon and the Pleiades, then it has to be considered that it is at least after sunset, and probably dark or nighttime. That being the case, why would not the other object be representative of nighttime? I also believe its position in relationship to the Pleiades is portraying what it might appear like in the harvest season. Again, it seems to be a bit more than just coincidence to not have some merit. (See image below)

Harvest Moon and the Pleiades in the 7th month

Here’s an image from Redshift astronomy program for October 25 2010, as it would appear from earth. This would be about the 18th day of the 7th biblical month in 2010, following the harvest season of scripture. Note the relationship of the round object to the Pleiades similar to how it is shown on the Nebra Sky disk. This is why I suspect that the round object on the disk may be the moon and not the sun.

Watch for the crescent and the Pleiades on April 16 2010
This is the “sign” for the beginning of the biblical year

Here’s an approximation of how the moon will appear in proximity to the Pleiades on the night of April 16, 2010, at about 2130 Hrs. The moon will be approximately 20 degrees above the horizon at 8:50PM, about 45 min after sunset. The Pleiades will be just above that by approx 2 degrees or so. You should be able to see the Pleiades without the aid of binoculars, but have them for a more spectacular sight

For those that observe the new moon nearest the vernal equinox, or the bowl crescent level with horizon as the beginning of the biblical year, a problem is presented in that the moon is nowhere near the Pleiades on the evening of the visible crescent. It is still in Pisces on the night of 16th and possibly into Aries on the night of the 17th. The moon did not arrive in the vicinity of the Pleiades until the evening of March 20 2010 when it passed across (occulted) the front of some of the stars in the Pleiades. It was at this time that the moon, in relationship to the Pleiades, as shown on the Nebra Sky Disk, indicated that a 13th month needed to be inserted into the biblical year.

 What did Moses see in the sky just before the Exodus?

This image from Redshift Astronomy program shows an approximation of what the sky might have looked like on April 9 1446 BC from the approximate location in Egypt where the Israelites were slaves. Time and date are approximate and the sun has been left shown to show the relationship of the sun, moon and Pleiades. It is only an estimation of visibility as the moon is only a little over 5 degrees above the horizon which means limited visibility. Note the relationship of the moon and the Pleiades.


  • Astronomy programs have confirmed the occurrence of this annual event for the last decade, as well as the next, including various points in history.
  • When Moses looked at the sky at the time of God’s instructions, the Pleiades were in the sky, in close proximity to the visible crescent. (see earlier image)
  • The Pleiades appears annually in close proximity to the visible crescent moon, just after sunset, in the spring, at the beginning of the first biblical month.
  • The Pleiades, in harmony with the visible crescent, must be considered as visual evidence for the beginning month of the year.
  • The vernal equinox has shifted backwards through the heavens to no longer be valid as a reference point for the biblical new moon to begin the New Year.
  • The beginning of the biblical year in the spring must be considered as being fully after the vernal equinox, when the sun and the moon are in Aries and the crescent moon is in proximity to the Pleiades.
  • Visual observations need to be confirmed, but the beginning of the biblical year should be considered when the visible crescent and the visible Pleiades are in close proximity, but a month later when indicated that a 13th month should be inserted.

  • The Nebra Sky Disk confirms the validity of the use of the Pleiades in the visual sighting for the beginning of the biblical year.
  • Since the Nebra Sky Disk predates the time of the calendar given to Moses, the barley harvest has to be considered as secondary to obvious hard evidence i.e. the Pleiades; otherwise as confirmation.
  • The Nebra Sky Disk, even with its controversies, presents coincidences with the calendar of scripture to not be considered as valid for review and possible use.
  • And finally, isn’t it just like God to use a heavenly marker like a cluster of “seven” stars to lead us in His way? What other symbolism will we discover waiting for us here?


Several excerpts from Archaeology and Astronomy publications on Nebra Sky Disk

Review of Nebra Sky Disk by Andis Kaulins, deciphering expert; pros and cons

Article by Roarie Starbuck on history of Hebrew words of Pleiades
Depictions of Pleiades absent from Jewish history prior to time of Christ

Article by Olga Morales on Pleiades
Meaning of Pleiades to Freemasonry, Mayan, mythology, JW’s, astrology and Mazzaroth

Inquiries have been submitted to astronomers, USNO, and Nebra Sky Disk project for confirmation.

You can Google “crescent moon Pleiades” and you will find web articles about this annual event for nearly every year for the last decade.